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Beneficial End Use of Waste Tires

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Policy Guidelines for Civil Engineering Applications Approved for Beneficial End Use of Waste Tires

PURPOSE:

This document is a statement of policy designed to describe civil engineering applications that are deemed appropriate by the Division of Solid Waste Management for reimbursement through the solid waste grant program as a beneficial end use of waste tires generated in Tennessee, in accordance with T.C.A. 68-211-867(b)(5).

DEFINITIONS:

A beneficial end use of scrap tires in civil engineering applications is defined as the use of tires to serve as a replacement for another material, after it is processed so as to lose its identity as a solid waste or as a tire by providing a sound environmental or engineering advantage, or by the material becoming a value-added product that is returned to commerce. A beneficial end use shall not result in unacceptable damage to the environment or public health and safety, and not simply be a disposal method. Approved beneficial end uses shall be in general conformity with "ASTM Standard Practice for Use of Scrap Tires in Civil Engineering Applications" (D 6270-98). The definitions for all scrap tire terms used in this policy are contained in the ASTM Standard.

APPLICATIONS QUALIFIED FOR REIMBURSEMENT:

In all civil engineering applications using tire chips or shreds:

  • All tire chips or shreds shall have the bead wire removed,
  • Less than 1% (by weight) of the tire chips or shreds shall be free metal fragments which are not at least partially encased in rubber;
  • Tire chips or shreds should generally be unattached to one another by wires;
  • All tire chips or shreds shall be free of all flammable contaminants, including wood fragments, wood chips, any other fibrous organic matter, or the remains of tires that have been subjected to a fire.

Specific approved applications are as follows:

  1. CLASS I LANDFILL CONSTRUCTION AND CLOSURE
    • The underdrain layer beneath the liner;
    • Pipe trenches associated with the leachate collection/recirculation system, landfill gas collection system, and ground water control system;
    • The leachate drainage and operations layers above the liner (but not as alternate cover material); and
    • The drainage layer in the final cover design.

    In all landfill construction and closure applications:

    • The application shall have the prior approval of the Division of Solid Waste Management;
    • The tire chips shall only be used as a replacement for and/or an amendment to gravel or sand;
    • The maximum dimension of any tire chip shall not exceed 102 mm (4 inches) nominal and at least 50% (by weight) of the material shall not exceed 51 mm (2 inches) nominal;
    • A maximum of 5% (by weight) shall pass the 4.75 mm (#4) sieve;
    • All tire chips shall not have belt wires protruding more than 38 mm (1 ½ inches) and 75% (by weight) shall not have belt wires protruding more than 12 mm (½ inch);
    • All tire chips shall have at least one (1) sidewall severed from the tread;
    • Any layers of 100% tire chips shall not exceed 1 meter in thickness; and
    • In no case shall tire chips intended for beneficial end use be mixed or disposed with solid waste.

    These standards do not preclude the Division of Solid Waste Management from applying additional or stricter standards to the actual installation. The Divsion of Solid Waste Management will consider the landfill operator or the party purchasing the chips from the processor to be the end user.

  2. PUBLIC WORKS CONSTRUCTION

    The Divsion of Solid Waste Management will approve the beneficial end use of waste tires in the construction of paved roads, bridge approaches, and levees under the following conditions:

    • As backfill material in an embankment or behind a retaining wall and
      • The maximum dimension of any tire chip or shred shall not exceed 305 mm (12 inches) nominal, except in the top 0.61 m (2 feet) feet of the fill, 100% of the material shall not exceed 51 mm (2 inches) nominal;
      • A minimum of 75% (by weight) shall pass the 203 mm (8 inch) sieve;
      • A maximum of 25% (by weight) shall pass the 38 mm (1.5 inch) sieve;
      • A maximum of 1% (by weight) shall pass the 4.75 mm (#4) sieve;
    • As a subgrade base beneath pavement and
      • The maximum dimension of any tire chip shall not exceed 7.6 cm (3 inches) nominal;
      • A maximum of 50% (by weight) shall pass the 38 mm (1.5 inch) sieve; and
      • A maximum of 5% (by weight) shall pass the 4.75 mm (#4) sieve.
    • When tire chips or sheds are used in public works construction:
      • The tire material shall be protected from soil infiltration by a synthetic geotextile fabric;
      • The tire material shall be placed above the water table;
      • All tire shreds or chips shall not have belt wires protruding more than 38 mm (1 ½ inches) and 75% shall not have belt wires protruding more than 12 mm (½ inch);
      • All tire shreds or chips shall have at least one (1) sidewall severed from the tread; and
      • The end user shall obtain a letter from the Division of Solid Waste Management stating approval of the application of tire shreds in each in-state project.
      • Any layers of 100% tire chips or shreds shall not exceed 3 meters in thickness.
    • In rubber-modified asphalt after the tires have been processed into crumb rubber.

    The Divsion of Solid Waste Management will consider the construction contractor or the party purchasing the chips from the processor to be the end user.

  3. DRAINFIELD AGGREGATE

    The Divsion of Solid Waste Management will approve as a beneficial end use of waste tires the application of tire chips in the construction of subsurface sewage disposal systems and ground water/surface water diversion systems, i.e. French drains, for subgrade building foundations under the following conditions:

    • The substitution of tire chips for conventional drainfield aggregate has the prior approval of the local or state government agency having jurisdiction over installation of such systems;
    • The tire chips are sold by the processor to an installer/home construction contractor, or to a company that stockpiles the material for the purpose of selling it to installers/home construction contractors; and
    • The tire chips delivered to the end user meet the specifications of the local or state government agency having jurisdiction over installation of such systems.
    • Any layers of 100% tire chips or shreds shall not exceed 3 meters in thickness.
    • The Divsion of Solid Waste Management will consider the installer/home construction contractor or the party purchasing the chips from the processor to be the end user.

For more information on Tennessee's Waste Tire Program,please contact Louis Bordenave at 615-532-0095.